Innovation @ E2Expo

Fabrics from fermenting wine, beer and coconut water

Updated : December 2020


  • Entrepreneurs
  • Financial investors
  • Marketing or sales professionals
  • Researchers or innovators
  • Textile and fashion designers
  • Textile industry sustainability professionals

Plant free microbial cellulose rayon fibres

Food waste fermentation for cellulose fibres

Plant cellulose fibres are one of the most sustainable materials for textiles as they easily biodegrade, however, the raw material cultivation is resource intensive and felling of trees has environmental impacts. Nanollose is an Australian based biotechnology company working to produce first-of-its-kind garment made from tree free rayon fibre called Nullarbor. The fibre is made through a fermenting process using raw materials such as beer, wine and coconut water.  The process does not involve the felling of trees or require the use of arable land or its associated use of irrigation, pesticides and other resource intensive inputs. 

Read more: Nanollose


Tree free cellulose for textiles

Natural and fermented liquid sources for textile design

Microbial cellulose textile fibres

Food waste fermentation for cellulose

Read More

  1. Nanollose
  2. Creating sustainable fabrics using beer, wine and coconut water
  3. World's first fashion garment from liquid coconut waste




| Australia

Year Established


Highlights and sustainability benefits

The plant free cellulose can be used as an alternative to cotton and viscose rayon, thereby minimizing environment and resource management impacts arising from their fibre production processes. It can easily be integrated with existing industrial machinery or processes. 


The company's first dress made of wine and coconut water was exhibited at Milan Expo 2015. It has also partnered with Grasim Industries Ltd., of the Aditya Birla Group for scaling Nullarbor fibre production.

About the Work

Nanollose’s innovative biomaterial technology process begins in a facility where microbes naturally ferment liquid waste products from food industries into cellulose, a cotton-like a raw material that are then transformed into their Nullarbor fibre. The proprietary process to produce cellulose requires very little land, water or energy and the production cycle is just 18 days , compared to the eight months seen in the cotton industry. 

About the Innovator

Gary Cass was researching to produce a vat of wine when he discovered a slimy sludge material waste left behind. Upon further observations, he found that its structure was similar to cellulose which plays a major role in textiles, being a component of cotton. With further discussions with a fashion designer and after 8 years of experimentation in using this to make a fabric, Gary finally came up with a world's first Plant free Cellulose based dress made of wine and coconut water in 2015. The company is still in pilot stages and is developing a supply chain to collect waste from Indonesian coconut industry along with waste streams from other industries and aims to significantly increase the fibre production.

Discussion topics

Fermented liquid based cellulose fibres


Scalability challenges for microbial cellulose textile fibres


Innovations in plant free cellulose technologies


Textile cellulose fiber from agro waste and plant waste



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