Physical or chemical methods for textile wastewater pretreatment are of high cost, extremely energy consuming, and environmentally low efficient and generate toxic sludge. Thus, the use of microbial technique for textile dye degradation will be eco-friendly and is probably a lucrative alternative to physico-chemical processes. Microbial enzymes, viz. laccase and azoreductase, are cost-efficient, easy to harvest, easily downstream processable, and effortlessly mobilizable.
The study describes the recent research trends on nanoparticle-microbial enzyme conjugates that are highly efficient to remove the azo dye from textile waste within a few minutes. The present review is an illustrated compilation of the use of microbial enzymes in removal of textile dyes, listing the various mechanims that enzymes use to degrade the toxic pollutants in textile wastewater.
The study concludes that the mixture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria or consortia instead of one single bacterial strain is more effective and efficient to degrade the azo dye. In a consortial system consisting of a mixture of defined microbial population, a large variety of enzymes get released and attack the same chemical structure in different ways, resulting in faster degradation of the complex chemical structure.
Read More: Degradation of Synthetic Azo Dyes of Textile Industry: a Sustainable Approach Using Microbial Enzymes
Efficiency of microbial enzymes in textile wastewater treatment
Enzyme-meditated decolorization and degradation of azo dye
Degradation and decolorization mechanism of textile dyes using enzymes
Trends in microbial azo dye-degrading enzymes
Nanoparticle-enzyme azo dye degradation mechanism